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Ecosystem Services

Nuevo convenio IIAP – CIAT busca rescatar los beneficios de la naturaleza para la seguridad alimentaria y la salud nutricional

Apr 14th, 2014 | By

Por: Adriana Varón y Gisella Cruz-García

Perú

El proyecto en Perú inició con una prueba piloto con los habitantes del caserío 7 de Junio de la municipalidad de Yarinacocha, Ucayali. Foto: Julio César Martínez

El proyecto en Perú inició con una prueba piloto con los habitantes del caserío 7 de Junio de la municipalidad de Yarinacocha, Ucayali. Foto: Julio César Martínez

Juana tiene claro que cuando de “limpiar el estómago” a sus dos hijos se trata, solo acude a la leche que da la corteza del ojé y listo. Y para cuando ella o algún familiar o vecino tienen una herida, la sangre de grado combinada con la copaiba es la cura más efectiva. Hasta se atreve a afirmar que “los hombres no deben consumir demasiado aguaje porque tiene hormonas femeninas”.

Estas recomendaciones surgieron en un intercambio de saberes entre los habitantes del caserío 7 de Junio, de la municipalidad de Yarinacocha, en la región de Ucayali, Perú. Durante la larga jornada, la comunidad,  en cabeza de 10 de sus líderes, se reunió en la cancha de fútbol del pueblo, unos en el kiosko y los otros bajo la sombra de los árboles y con dibujos y gráficos representaron lo que el bosque les ha significado para sobrevivir.

Hablaron también del camu camu silvestre, la granadilla, la mullaca, el carachupa, el ronsoco y de las hojas de yarina y shapaja y sus poderes escondidos. Pero la charla donde los viejos hicieron honor a sus años y a sus conocimientos sobre la selva, también los aterrizó en una terrible realidad: muchas de las plantas medicinales, animales de caza y cultivos nativos han ido desapareciendo para dar paso a extensas áreas de palma aceitera y ganadería y la tala ilegal.

Esta experiencia fue la prueba piloto de un componente del proyecto ”Evaluación de servicios ecosistémicos para la seguridad alimentaria y la salud nutricional en la interfase bosque agricultura” (ASSETS, por sus siglas en inglés) a realizarse en Ucayali, Perú, en el marco del convenio de Cooperación Interinstitucional que fue recientemente firmado entre el Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana (IIAP) y Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT).

Foto: Julio César Martinez

Foto: Julio César Martinez

“El proyecto tiene como objetivo documentar las relaciones entre los servicios de los ecosistemas, la seguridad alimentaria y la salud nutricional de poblaciones mestizas e indígenas en esta región. El proyecto analizará los servicios ambientales a través de los cuatro pilares de seguridad alimentaria de la FAO: disponibilidad, acceso, utilización y estabilidad”, dijo Gisella Cruz García, científica social del CIAT  e investigadora del proyecto.

 El proyecto ASSETS se adelanta en tres regiones que tienen diferentes grados de deforestación y que son blanco de fenómenos climáticos como lluvias y sequías extremas.

Se trata de la cuenca baja del río Caquetá en la Amazonía colombiana y la cuenca del lago Chilwa en Malawi, África. En el caso de Perú, la región de Ucayali. La investigación del nuevo convenio entre el IIAP y el CIAT se centrará en las provincias Coronel Portillo y Padre Abad y tendrá una duración de 18 meses.

Esta región de la selva amazónica peruana es una de las más golpeadas en Latinoamérica por la tala indiscriminada de árboles producto de los procesos de colonización, lo que conlleva al incremento de actividades de cambio de uso del suelo.

Entre los años 2004 y 2012, el CIAT logró monitorear e identificar zonas de cambio en la cobertura vegetal en la región Ucayali través de la herramienta Terra-i. Entre el 2011 y 2012 fueron convertidas 2.600 hectáreas de bosques en extensas plantaciones de palma y cacao, esta última por la demanda del mercado.

La metodología

La investigación se llevará a cabo a través de métodos participativos y encuestas familiares para identificar las diferencias entre los hogares, así como a nivel comunitario en el acceso a, y uso de, los servicios ecosistémicos y su contribución a la seguridad alimentaria.

Foto: Julio César Martínez

Foto: Julio César Martínez

Asimismo, se desarrollará una revisión documental del uso de las tierras y de las políticas económicas clave nacionales y locales; además de sistemas de gobernanzas que afectan la cobertura de tierras y provisión de servicios ecosistémicos.

Esta información permitirá identificar los factores determinantes de la inseguridad alimentaria que podrían afectar hogares y comunidades enteras. También se hará un análisis de escenarios para evaluar de manera ex ante cómo los niveles de contribución de los servicios ecosistémicos a la seguridad alimentaria pueden variar a medida que cambia el uso de tierra, las fuentes de ingreso, e incluso, el clima.

De acuerdo con José Sánchez Choy, investigador del IIAP, el estudio se desarrollará en tres etapas: una primera que será la evaluación participativa con familias de nueve comunidades asentadas en las riberas del río y a lo largo de la carretera; la segunda etapa, encuestas a 300 hogares teniendo en cuenta dos momentos importantes: época de lluvias y temporada seca.

Por último, un equipo de modeladores desarrollará un modelo de predicción que presentará alternativas de gestión de los servicios ambientales que se reflejen en la adopción de políticas multisectoriales adecuadas.

“Nuestro objetivo es llevar información a los gobiernos locales, municipales, departamentales y nacionales para que incrementen y mejoren sus políticas de conservación del medio ambiente, salud y nutrición de las zonas rurales”, dijo el ingeniero Sánchez Choy.

Por su parte, Ingrid Gutiérrez, enfermera de profesión, quien conforma el equipo encuestador, aseguró que “toda la información que nos dé la comunidad se la vamos a regresar para que se concientice de lo que está pasando en sus bosques y que afecta su alimentación y su salud. También vamos a orientar a la gente para que no permita que la selva se siga agotando”.

El pasado, presente y futuro

Con dibujos y gráficos los líderes de la comunidad ilustraron lo que el bosque les ha significado para sobrevivir. Foto: Julio César Martínez

Con dibujos y gráficos los líderes de la comunidad ilustraron lo que el bosque les ha significado para sobrevivir. Foto: Julio César Martínez

 Enoc fue seleccionado por la comunidad del 7 de Junio para dibujar en aquella jornada de intercambio de saberes, los frutos que la selva les ha dado en la historia del caserío.

De manera casi perfecta plasmó en un pliego de papel las hierbas medicinales, las frutas y animales de caza y de río que han sido protagonistas en la lucha diaria por sobrevivir de las 280 personas mestizas que conforman la comunidad, distante a una hora de la capital Pucallpa por una carretera sin asfaltar.

Lo que tenían hace 30 años, hace 20, hace 10, lo que tienen hoy y lo que creen tendrán en 10 años les dejó una reflexión:

“Hace 30 años nos dábamos el lujo de escoger qué tipo de pescado queríamos comer, ahora tenemos que esperar a que lleguen la crecientes. ¿Qué nos puede esperar en 10 años?”, dice Mariano. Sin embargo, no quiere darse por vencido. “Nada es imposible y en nosotros está en no dejar que se acabe la selva y seguir viviendo de lo que sabiamente nos ha dado la madre naturaleza”.

Aunando esfuerzos

*El Convenio Marco de Colaboración Interinstitucional firmado recientemente entre el IIAP y el CIAT tiene como objetivo establecer las líneas principales y mecanismos de cooperación interinstitucional para aunar esfuerzos en acciones de interés recíproco de acuerdo con la misión y objetivos de ambas instituciones en temas de investigación, conservación y asistencia técnica en la Amazonía Peruana, brindando soporte científico, tecnológico y de colaboración.

*El proyecto ASSETS se lleva a cabo gracias al consorcio internacional conformado por la Universidad de Souhthampton, Conservación Internacional, el Centro Vasco para el Cambio Climático, la Universidad de Malawi y el CIAT.

ASSETS forma parte de la iniciativa ESPA, es financiado por DFID, NERC y ESRC y pertenece a los programas de investigación del CGIAR sobre Agua, Tierra y Ecosistemas, así como el programa de Bosques, Árboles y Agroforestería.

http://espa-assets.org/

http://wle.cgiar.org/blogs/2013/05/22/the-role-of-ecosystem-services-on-food-security-and-nutrition-in-the-amazon/

http://dapa.ciat.cgiar.org/participatory-methods-on-ecosystem-services-in-the-colombian-amazon/

http://dapa.ciat.cgiar.org/ecosystem-services-and-food-security-a-new-line-of-investigation/

Escrito por: Adriana Varón y Gisella Cruz-García



Esquema de Pago por Servicios Ambientales (PSA) Hidrológicos para la Cuenca del río Campoalegre en Colombia

Apr 2nd, 2014 | By

El Fondo para la Acción Ambiental y la Niñez en alianza con la Corporación Autónoma Regional de Risaralda (CARDER), en el marco del Sistema Regional de Áreas Protegidas del Eje Cafetero-SIRAP-EC, recibió cofinanciación de la Fundación MacArthur para el proyecto “Construyendo capacidades para la adaptación al cambio climático y la conservación de la biodiversidad y el agua en los Andes colombianos”. Este proyecto surge como respuesta a las inminentes consecuencias que tiene el cambio climático sobre los ecosistemas tropicales, los servicios que estos proveen y sobre las comunidades humanas de los países en vía de desarrollo. Dentro de las áreas identificadas con alta relevancia, se estableció que el Parque  Municipal Natural Campoalegre, así como el Parque Regional Natural Ucumarí y el PNN los Nevados, conforman un corredor de conservación estratégico para el abastecimiento de agua de más de 700,000 habitantes, así como del sector industrial, agropecuario y de generación de energía. Es por esto, que se establece que un producto importante que tiene dicho proyecto, es el diseño de un esquema de Pagos por Servicios Ambientales (PSA) Hidrológicos, que estimule la conservación de la Cuenca del río Campoalegre.

El Pago por Servicios Ambientales (PSA) Hidrológicos puede tener diferentes aproximaciones. La mayoría consideran los conceptos de productividad, sostenibilidad y algunos de equidad, pero generalmente los analizan en forma separada sin considerar los trade-offs que se presentan entre ellos. La situación se vuelve más compleja cuando estos criterios se evalúan a la luz de las externalidades ambientales negativas o positivas, como por ejemplo tratar de entender los efectos que un uso de la tierra en un sitio de la cuenca tienen sobre los servicios ambientales hidrológicos en otra parte de la cuenca.

Cuenca_CampoalegreLa cuenca del río Campoalegre administrativamente forma parte de los departamentos de Caldas y Risaralda, con jurisdicción de las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales CORPOCALDAS y CARDER y de la Unidad de Parques Nacionales, por tener área en el Parque Nacional Natural Los Nevados. Tiene una extensión aproximada de 434.96 Km², de los cuales el 76% corresponden a Risaralda y el 24% restante a Caldas. Esta cuenca abastece los acueductos urbanos y rurales de los municipios de Santa Rosa de Cabal (Risaralda) y Palestina, Chinchiná (Caldas) con el recurso hídrico de 32 microcuencas abastecedoras todas localizadas en la cuenca y presentándose como una cuenca de alta importancia a nivel regional generadora de energía eléctrica a través de la empresa CHEC (Central Hidroeléctrica de Caldas). Los beneficiarios del servicio ambiental hidrológico se pueden clasificar en: a) beneficiarios para la generación hidroeléctrica y b) beneficiarios de acueductos.

Con el fin de analizar el estado actual de los sistemas de producción ganaderos, sus costos de oportunidad, el impacto de los sistemas silvopastoriles en la nutrición animal y el impacto de los mismos en los balances hidrológicos y beneficios privados y sociales que se lograría con un esquema de PSA; el Fondo para la Acción Ambiental y la Niñez celebró un convenio con el Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). El Área  de Análisis de Políticas (DAPA, por sus siglas en inglés) de CIAT a través de su grupo de investigación en Servicios Ecosistémicos lideró este análisis enfocándose en los siguientes aspectos: a) el análisis detallado de los costos de producción y de los flujos de efectivo que se generaría en la implementación de las alternativas de uso de la tierra más promisorias; b) la estimación de la magnitud de la compensación ambiental para que los productores, en forma privada, se comprometan a cambiar los usos actuales de la tierra; c) la estimación del impacto que estos cambios tendrían en los beneficios de los productores a precios sociales y privado; y d) con base en los anteriores elementos, identificación de las alternativas y la distribución espacial de las mismas, para obtener el máximo impacto.

Dentro de las conclusiones más importantes a las cuales llevó este estudio, es que los sistemas de producción existentes en las partes altas de la cuenca del río Campoalegre serán muy estables. Esto se debe a que las reforestaciones podrían hacerse en zonas que son de alta pendientes las cuales no serían rentables sobre todo ante la disminución en el precio de la madera. Otro aspecto relevante es que las fincas ganaderas con buenos niveles de productividad y relación beneficio-costo entre 1.3 y 1.9 están muy poco interesadas en hacer un cambio estructural hacia sistemas silvopastoriles. Una conclusión fundamental a la que se llegó es que es poco probable que los pagos por servicios ambientales hidrológicos puedan proveer los incentivos que se requieren para modificar sustancialmente el uso del suelo. Esto en parte se debe a que el precio sombra del agua para acueductos es muy bajo pues los caudales son suficiente para los próximos 25 años, a que el costo de controlar los sedimentos es muy bajo en los acueductos y la reducción en costos sería de 1.3 millones/año (valor estimado para el 2006) para el acueducto de Santa Rosa de Cabal y a que el sistema integrado de generación hidroeléctrica reduce sustancialmente el precio sombra del agua del río Campoalegre al tomar una parte importante del agua del río Chinchiná.

Caudal_Escenarios

Agua aportada al caudal por diferentes zonas en la cuenca – Comparación escenarios
Nota: Zonas en azul más intenso aportan mayormente al rendimiento hídrico de la cuenca.

Con estos resultados, vale la pena reflexionar sobre cuál sería el objetivo del PSA en la cuenca. Según los análisis anteriores no necesariamente es viable poder aumentar la provisión del servicio hidrológico a través de usos de la tierra. Sin embargo la cuenca en si ya provee una magnitud importante del servicio que genera beneficios para el sector hidroeléctrico y los usuarios de agua potable. Un esquema de PSA podría establecerse para retribuir por estos servicios ya recibidos y asegurar que las zonas que ya están conservadas y contribuyen importantemente al rendimiento hídrico de la cuenca, continúen en buen estado de conservación.



“Terra-i Peru”: The Peruvian Ministry of Environment and CIAT present an early warning system for land cover change

Mar 19th, 2014 | By
Figure 1: Jhon Tello, developer of the Terra-i web platform, showed the scope of the web viewer that is now available for use in the MINAM GEOSERVIDOR.

Figure 1: Jhon Tello, developer of the Terra-i web platform, showed the scope of the web viewer that is now available for use in the MINAM GEOSERVIDOR.

As part of the framework agreement signed on 10 March 2014 between the Peruvian Ministry of Environment (MINAM) and the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), The General Directorate for Territorial Planning (DGOT) organized a workshop to present the Terra-i Peru tool. The workshop was held on the 11th and 12th of March at MINAM facilities.

Terra-i Peru combines a set of tools designed for the detection and early warning of changes in land use and land cover using satellite imagery. It will allow officials from regional and local governments and other public and private institutions to contribute to improving land and natural resource management through sustainable use. The meeting was attended by representatives from the Peruvian Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF), the Ministry of Agriculture (MINAGRI), the Supervisory Body for Forest and Wildlife Resources (OSINFOR), the Environmental Assessment of Oversight Agency (OEFA), and the National Service of Protected Areas by the State (SERNANP), among others.

As part of the workshop the Terra-i team released a video presenting the results its first field expedition at the end of 2013 near the city of Pucallpa in the Ucayali region, Peru.

View the video here in Spanish (English version coming soon!):

Context of the Peruvian forests

According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Peru has about 70 million hectares of forests, constituting 40% of the country’s land area and placing Peru second only to Brazil in total wooded area in Latin America. Peru’s forests have suffered dramatic losses over recent years. Indeed, between 2000 and 2005 DGOT observed a total loss of 455,490 hectares. Since then the area of forest loss has nearly doubled, reaching a total of 865,292 hectares between 2005 and 2011.

Terra-i Peru provides information every 16 days on changes that happen in the Peruvian territory. Most of these changes are mainly caused by the development of human activities. Terra-i Peru is based on the analysis of MODIS and TRMM satellite images and has a spatial resolution of 250 meters. These characteristics makes it an important source of information for activities related to sustainable use and conservation of natural resources, biodiversity, adaptation to climate change and disaster risk management, among others. But it is especially important for the design of public policies to guide the various interventions in the Peruvian territory under the framework of the country’s Land Management Plan.

Figure 2. CIAT and DGOT staff attended the meeting together with guests from other Peruvian governmental institutions. Together, they defined the basis of a collaborative work plan within the framework of the agreement CIAT-MINAM.

Figure 2. CIAT and DGOT staff attended the meeting together with guests from other Peruvian governmental institutions. Together, they defined the basis of a collaborative work plan within the framework of the agreement CIAT-MINAM.

The Terra-i team thinks it is crucial for a country like Peru to have access to information about what is happening to natural land covers in its territory that is as up-to-date as possible. The work of mapping and monitoring changes in the natural land cover (led by DGOT) allows authorities to be better informed for the guidance and efficient planning of the economic and industrial development of the Peruvian nation.

To this end, the general director of DGOT, Dr. Fernando Neyra, highlighted the efforts of cooperation between the MINAM and CIAT to generate proposals and actions regarding changes in land use. The Ministry will be able to “integrate the tool with existing land management priorities such as human impact and the set of physical and biological conditions that shape the territory.” Thus, he continued, “monitoring the surface of the earth will provide information related to economic dynamics and their impact on the territory.”

The Terra-i team takes this opportunity to thank all the DGOT-MINAM staff for their interest in applying this tool to the Peruvian context. We also appreciated the enthusiasm of the workshop participants; their presence was key to set the parameters of a tool that will benefit many sectors of Peruvian society.

Blog post by Louis Reymondin. Revision of English-language version by Caitlin Peterson (CIAT / CCAFS visiting researcher).



Colaboradores ASB reúnen en Lima, Perú para evaluar metodología para planificar el desarrollo con bajas emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero

Mar 7th, 2014 | By
william

El Ing. William Llactayo abrió el taller con una descripción de los procesos de planificación de uso de la tierra en Peru.

Por Glenn Hyman y Valentina Robiglio

Cross-posted in English on the ASB Web Site

Varias iniciativas de  investigación y desarrollo están tratando los diferentes aspectos de reducir emisiones de degradación forestal y deforestación (REDD). ¿Pero cómo se pueden implementar cambios en la realidad? La semana pasada los socios del Consorcio para los Márgenes de Bosques Tropicales (ASB por sus siglas en inglés) fueron invitados por el Ministerio de Ambiente de Perú (MINAM) a la ciudad de Lima para presentar una metodología que permite insertar procesos de planificación del uso del territorio con bajas emisiones de GEI, dentro de los procesos nacionales y regionales de ordenamiento territorial. Dado que cada región del país tiene un mandato para crear planes de ordenamiento territorial, este proceso podría ser un vehículo para incluir consideraciones sobre la reducción de emisiones de gases de invernadero y la conservación de otros servicios ecosistémicos en la planificación para el desarrollo.

La reunión fue llevado a cabo en las oficinas del  (MINAM) junto con oficiales del Centro Mundial en Agroforestería (ICRAF para sus siglas en inglés) y el Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). Los participantes se capacitaron en la metodología LUWES (por sus siglas en inglés) para la planificación de uso de la tierra,  la cual consiste en el desarrollo de escenarios futuros con respecto al uso de la tierra y la estimación de sus efectos en los medios de vida de la población, en las emisiones de gases de invernadero y en  otros servicios ecosistémicos. Los participantes trabajaron con datos reales de la región Ucayali donde se han hecho investigaciones sobre el tema en los últimos años.

Los grupos de trabajo discuten estrategias de desarrollo con bajas emisiones.

Los grupos de trabajo discuten estrategias de desarrollo con bajas emisiones.

Los participantes – trabajando en grupos y utilizando el software ABACUS – combinaron información sobre uso de la tierra, reservas de carbono y rentabilidad de actividades en los sistemas de uso de la tierra. Los resultados incluyeron análisis de los costos de oportunidad de deforestación evitada y estimados de emisiones bajo diferentes escenarios. El MINAM está ahora evaluando la posibilidad de implementar esta metodología en sus procesos de ordenamiento territorial que está llevando a cabo con las regiones del país. La esperanza es que los esfuerzos para reducir emisiones pueden ser más eficaces si están conectados a procesos de ordenamiento territorial.



COMPANDES project closes having delivered capacity for better benefit sharing in Andean basins

Feb 13th, 2014 | By

logo

What is COMPANDES?

COMPANDES was a three year project on understanding mechanisms for benefit sharing to improve productivity and reduce conflicts for water in the Andes.  Our work has helped develop data and tools that have empowered communities in the Andes to better understand, negotiate and manage their water resources through benefit sharing mechanisms.

The project (a collaboration between King’s College London, WWF-Colombia, The Stockholm Environment Institute (US-Centre) the International Center for Tropical Agriculture and the National University of Colombia), was funded by the CGIAR Challenge Programme on Water and Food (phase II) in response to the Andes Basin Development Challenge: To increase water productivity and reduce water-related conflict through the establishment of equitable Benefit-sharing Mechanisms.

Benefit sharing mechanisms are negotiated agreements between stakeholders on how the benefits from water use in a basin will be managed and shared

Our focus was on on designing and implementing benefit sharing mechanisms.bienestar

The work was managed adaptively in response to stakeholder needs and was carried out at the entire northern Andes scale and in selected catchments in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. The project involved the following key activities:

(a) To better define the concept for benefit sharing mechanisms (BSM) implemented in the Andes, review the kinds of mechanisms in existence in the region;

(b) To analyse which BSM are likely to work where across the Andes both from a biophysical and an institutional perspective

(c) To analyse processes for negotiation of BSM including the analysis of actors, gender considerations, a legal and political process for negotiation (the Citizen Action Discussion o Conversatorios de Acción Ciudadana – CAC), a coupled social and technical process to the development of hydro-literacy for capacity building in negotiation and considerations for the monitoring and evaluation of BSM, once operational.

(d) The implementation of specific case studies on the design and implementation of BSM throughout the Andes, in the Coello-Combeima (Colombia), Alto la Paz (Bolivia), Daule (Ecuador), Santa (Peru), and in hydropower projects.

(e) The development and application of a generic negotiation support system (NSS) incorporating a negotiation process, the development of hydro-literacy through the application of locally relevant data policy support and water management tools and a review and feedback process to facilitate consensus

(f) An analysis of the sustainability of BSM in the face of exogeneous and endogeneous threats to their operation and/or the receipt of expected benefits

(g) An analysis of the role of BSM in the sustainability of water-for-food in the Andes and elsewhere

Key COMPANDES Messages

  1. Benefit sharing mechanisms are dependent on the balance of power relationships between competing parties. Thus, an important step to reduce these asymmetries includes the deployment of a common platform for shared hydrological knowledge and the development and enforcement of clear regulatory frameworks based on locally relevant hydrological science and locally acceptable management practice.
  2. Local stakeholders who are trained and active in the understanding of water and social processes, in the use of tools to anticipate impacts of interventions and who are strongly linked with the needs of the less favoured population in basins are critical to reducing poverty and protecting the environment through their role in the development and implementation of benefit sharing mechanisms.
  3.  Benefit sharing mechanisms are a process that requires a close collaboration between partners often over a period of 3 to 5 years during their negotiation and implementation phase alone.  They must be implemented on the basis of hydrological understanding and evidence of the likely impact of the proposed interventions on hydrological response in the target catchment – and this requires detailed data and understanding. They then need to be supported by evidence that the management interventions made (and being paid for) are having positive outcomes for the beneficiaries concerned.  This is a significant challenge which is not to be taken for granted.  They are no silver bullet and in many cases are not the best tool.
  4.  Benefit sharing mechanisms are not a mechanical or single solution but a range of options for change that incorporate the key principles of equity, adaptive and knowledge-led management to achieve specific benefits for specific beneficiaries and negotiated solutions.
  5. Benefit sharing mechanisms must adapt to changing circumstances including those posed by climate variability and change and changing socio-economic conditions
Figure 1 The Conversatorio de Acción Ciudadana as supported by the COMPANDES  Negotiation Support System

Figure 1 The Conversatorio de Acción Ciudadana as supported by the COMPANDES Negotiation Support System

Key COMPANDES Outputs

  • A consolidated negotiation support system (NSS) for use in a wide range of decision making problems (within and outside the Andes basins) and which includes a policy support system (PSS), AguAAndes/WaterWorld, which solves many of the fundamental constraints of access to information, reducing the barriers to carrying out sophisticated hydrological  analysis and scenario building.  The PSS is a tool but the negotiation support system (NSS) is a process, which incorporates an information and  negotiation cycle for the negotiation of BSM. Furthermore, the NSS brings together WEAP and WaterWorld in order to focus on water allocation as well as supply.  The NSS can be used at scales from national (for prioritisation,) to local for analysis of a specific BSM (see Daule water fund case and Bolivia case).
  • Local organizations and key partners trained in the use of hydrological data/ analytical tools and key regulatory and social resources and mechanisms for environmental management in their basins of interest. 59 institutions were involved,  31 national organizations, 15 international organizations and 3 private sector actors.  More than 226 people in total were trained.
  • These empowered people are now running local processes for water benefit sharing projects linked with independent local and regional initiatives (for example The Nature Conservancy’s water funds, and the Ministry of Environment (MMyA) in Bolivia through the Pilot Programme for Climate Resilience PPCR process), keeping the momentum and ensuring the sustainability of project and program investments.
  • A series of published papers in well-known international journals compiling information on the processes (methods), findings (results) and outputs (impact) o the project.
  • Specific agreements associated with BSM made and signed  between organised community groups and local, regional and national governmental institutions in the Coello Basin, Colombia, e.g. Instituto Alexander Von Humboldt and Parques Naturales Nacionales.
Figure 2 The COMPANDES  Negotiation Support System

Figure 2 The COMPANDES Negotiation Support System

The project closes having worked in many basins, with hundreds of stakeholders, trained 226 people in the use of negotiation support tools, supported legal agreements between communities,  produced 18 publications and supported 11 undergraduate, masters and PhD students.

 Further details of our work can be found in the project final technical report, at the project website: http://www.benefitsharing.net, the final report and associated publications and the CPWF website.

 



Transcending distance: successful Terra-i webinar

Feb 3rd, 2014 | By

Last Wednesday, January 29, Terra-i reached an important milestone in capacity development . Of 785 registered, more than 450 people successfully participated in the 1st Terra-i webinar. During approximately 1 hour the principal characteristics and advances of the tool were described. Also a demonstration of the use of the data was shown, ending with a question and answer session and the words of Glenn Hyman about the importance of this effort.

2014_2_fig1_webinar_map_EN

Figure 1. Infographic that indicates the gender (left), spatial distribution (map) and the participation of the countries with the majority of participants (greater than 8) in the webinar.

The 1st Terra-i webinar was successfully carried out with the support of MundoGEO, one of the most widely read portals on the topic of geospatial technologies, GeoSUR, a spatial information network for Latin America and the Caribbean and the Development Bank of Latin America (CAF).

DAPA-CIAT researchers Louis Reymondin, Alejandro Coca and Glenn Hyman represented the work of the Terra-i initiative. Alejandro and Louis explained methodological aspects and advances of the project for the audience in both Spanish and English. They also demonstrated how to access, use and interpret the data. Glenn ended the webinar describing his experience in the use of the data of for monitoring natural vegetation. He emphasized the easy access, the potential use of the data and the free access policy provided by Terra-i. Finally, he called for users of the tool to create more spaces for discussion among the community of users.

Watch the recording of the Webinar:

Knowing the audience…

People from 27 countries around the world participated in the webinar. The large majority of attendees were from the Latin American region, with more than 50% from Peru, Brazil Colombia and Argentina (Figure 1). Regarding gender, almost 30% of the audience were women.

The questions sent to the webinar site allowed us to understand a little more about the type of audience (Figure 2). For example, the majority of the participants already knew of the Terra-i initiative (70%) and also were users of GIS (95%). When users were asked about their knowledge of natural vegetation monitoring systems in their countries the response was divided between yes (26%), no (35%) and don’t know (39%).

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Monitoring events in our network….

Online interaction spaces with the users are an excellent communication channel as was shown by new users to our webpage. Since the announcement of the webinar (January 23) to the final day of this month (January 31) 160 new users were registered, including 80 new users on the day of the webinar (January 29)

Regarding the quantity of visits to the website, about 380 were made on the day of the webinar, a total of 1200 or 120 visits per day since the announcement at the end of January. This value is twice the average since the launch of our website in February 2012.

Finally, an increase in traffic among our social networks was also recorded. Although not as significant as traffic on a website, there are to date 321 “likes” on our Facebook page, 115 followers in Twitter and 23 subscribers to our YouTube page.

And uncertainties that open new doors and help us improve …

Although this webinar was only limited to 6 questions after the demonstration, another 40 questions were raised and will be answered according to their relevance in the section of our webpage on frequently asked questions (FAQ).  These questions suggest new opportunities and also elements of our initiative that can be improved. Below, we share 3 questions that showed different uncertainties and possible profiles of the participants.

Technical

Q: What is the validation, how is it measured? by Jesús Anaya, Colombia

A: To calculate validity, we compare our results with other systems (for example PRODES in Brazil) and we calculate indices such as precision, the recall and the kappa index (see Annex 2 of the land-use report in the publications section). We are also organizing validation results from fieldwork in Ucayali, Peru.

Non-technical

Q: Good morning, I would like to know if the results from the studies are available in the Terra-i website. Also, I would like to know if it is possible to contact somebody to know more about the methodology. Finally, if we are interested in requesting some training how would we do that? Thank you! By Anggela Michi, Peru

A: The majority of the studies that we or our partners have conducted are in the publications section on the website. For more information about the methodology or to request training you can contact us at the email address: terra.i.ciat@gmail.com.

Web portal

Q: Can I link Terra-i to my map server? By Raúl Molina, Bolivia

A: At the moment we do not have a web service to directly share data with other servers, but you can link to our website. In the near future we will include such a service.

The Terra-i team is grateful to all interested colleagues and to participants in this webinar. As well we would like to thank MundoGEO and GeoSUR for providing this opportunity to interact with colleagues. We would also like to thank our colleagues in the CGIAR Research Program on Forestry, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA), The Nature Conservancy, King’s College London (KCL), HEIG-VD  and others who have supported this initiative.

Blog post by Alejandro Coca. Translation and revision of English-language version by Glenn Hyman (CIAT researcher).

 

 

 

 



Call for abstracts/papers – The Fifth “Workshop on the Ostrom Workshop” (WOW5), Indiana University, 18-21 June 2014

Nov 25th, 2013 | By

The Fifth “Workshop on the Ostrom Workshop” (WOW5),

CALL FOR ABSTRACTS / PAPERS  

Abstract Submission Deadline: Friday, December 6th, 2013, GMT

A team of researchers in DAPA will be organizing a working group on multi-level governance of natural resources during the Fifth “Workshop on the Ostrom Workshop” (WOW5) to be held at Indiana University in Bloomington between June 18-21, 2014. The topic of the Working Group is “The relevance and practical application of multi-level governance arrangements for managing natural resources”  and proposals for contributions via oral presentations are now accepted. Please find below the details about the WOW5, as well as the Working Group that the DAPA team will be facilitating.

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The WOW Conference is held every five years by The Vincent and Elinor Ostrom Workshop in Political theory and Policy Analysis. The Fifth “Workshop on the Ostrom Workshop” (WOW5) continues its effort to bridge interdisciplinary approaches and research in face of complex interactions between social and natural systems, so as to better understand the limitations and strengths of self-governing institutions linked to various types of resources. The event is organized around Working Groups that will discuss various topics related to Vincent and Elinor Ostrom’s work. This is an excellent opportunity to share ideas and experiences on methodologies, theories and frameworks for analyzing common pool resources (CPRs) and other relevant research linked to how to best approach the social dilemmas related to the management of CPRs.

The Working Group (WG) on “The relevance and practical application of multi-level governance arrangements for managing natural resources” aims to gather empirical, interdisciplinary insights into the design, functioning and impacts of multi-level governance (MLG) institutional arrangements on the sustainable use, management and conservation of natural resources (forest, fisheries, pastures, etc.) around the world.

Background and objectives of the Working Group

Up to date, there have been extensive empirical evidence documenting institutions and arrangements that are unfit to meet the challenges associated with complex socio-ecological systems. While researchers, practitioners and policy-makers have tried to provide various answers to such misfits via decentralized, adaptive arrangements and multi-level governance initiatives, on-the-ground realities have repeatedly confirmed the elusiveness of such concepts. The pertinence of transferring theoretical concepts and approaches into practice is put to the test by a series of methodological and empirical questions: Who should receive more voice in the design and implementation of multi-level governance institutional arrangements? How should different development sectors be integrated and prioritized, in order to guarantee the sustainability of complex socio-ecological systems? How to better integrate local collective systems with other levels of decision making, making sure that equity and fairness principles are respected? How should national, regional, and local policies be harmonized, so as to respond to challenges that occur within and outside their jurisdictions?

More specifically, in response to the questions outlined above, this Working Group aims to:

  • open up a debate on experiences from the field that successfully addressed gaps and disconnects between policies at various scales and on-ground natural resources conservation efforts
  • document policy interventions at various scales that are able, on one hand, to affect broader jurisdictions (crossing biophysical, political and/or social boundaries) and, on the other hand, reflect the vertical and horizontal diffusion of decision-making power in natural resource management and conservation
  • discuss how institutional arrangements at different levels (including policy processes) integrate local social and cultural perspectives on natural resources and how this integration (or absence  of it) impacts on resource use and conservation
  • converse on the broader role of multi-level governance arrangements in producing social and institutional change
  • propose and discuss different qualitative and quantitative methodological approaches that allow for the scaling-up of successful multi-level governance initiatives

Deadline for submission

We invite persons interested in sharing experiences related to one or more of the objectives outlined above to submit their abstracts by December 6, 2013.

Abstracts should not exceed 250 words and should be submitted online via the ABTSRACT SUBMISSION FORM: http://www.indiana.edu/~wow5/abstracts/form.html. When completing the form, you should select the WG: The relevance and practical application of multi-level governance arrangements for managing natural resources.

Organization of the Working Group

The WG will be facilitated by a group of researchers from the Decision and Policy Analysis Research Area (DAPA) of the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) who will provide insights on experiences with multi-level governance arrangements in the Colombian Amazon, aimed at managing and sustaining ecosystem services for food security. This experience is based on the project “Attaining Ecosystem Services through Trade-Off Scenarios – ASSETS”, funded by the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme and implemented by CIAT, Conservation International, the University of Southampton and Dundee, the Basque Centre for Climate Change, and the Chancellor College Malawi, Rhodes University, Worldfish and LEAD Africa.

The session of the WG will be approximately 90 minutes and consists of:

  • 4 presentations, 15 minutes each
  • A Q&A and discussion session (30 minutes), where participants will have the opportunity to address questions to the panelists and discuss aspects addressed during the presentations.

Contact

For any question related to the Working Group, please contact a.c.nowak@cgiar.org  and c.navarrete@cgiar.org. For more information on the ASSETS project please visit: http://espa-assets.org/

You can also find more details about the WOW Conference at the following link: http://www.indiana.edu/~wow5/index.html



Are Latin America’s Protected Areas Effective at Conserving Nature?

Nov 22nd, 2013 | By
Sierra del Lacandon National Park, Guatemala. Photo: © Susan G. Ellis/TNC

Sierra del Lacandon National Park, Guatemala. Photo: © Susan G. Ellis/TNC

By Craig Leisher, Senior Social Scientist

Protected areas are the single most important conservation strategy in the world, and Latin America has the most land within protected areas of any region of the world.

But are Latin America’s protected areas effective at conserving nature inside their boundaries?

Using six years of biweekly remote-sensing data from Terra-i, a Nature Conservancy team and partners recently measured the land and forest degradation inside 1,788 protected areas across 19 Latin American countries.

The team analyzed all the protected areas in Latin America larger than 500 hectares (1,236 acres) that have known boundaries and were established before 2004.

The study, published in the journal Diversity, shows that there was degradation in 45% of all protected areas and that the rate of degradation inside Latin America’s protected areas increased by 250% from 2004 to 2009. Over these years, an area the size of Jamaica succumbed to degradation inside protected areas.

Prioritizing which protected areas to focus conservation efforts on is a fertile research topic. A recent study in Science identified which protected areas can contribute most to protecting globally threaten animals. Our analysis goes farther by showing which countries are actually doing a decent job of preventing habitat degradation inside protected areas and which are not.

From 2004 to 2009, the annual loss to degradation inside each of Guatemala’s protected areas averaged 1,003 hectares (2,478 acres). Bolivia lost 1,010 hectares (2,496 acres) to degradation on average inside each of its protected areas each year from 2004 to 2009. Mexico, on the other hand, lost only 22 hectares a year (54 acres) on average. Costa Rica was the standout with only 5 hectares (12 acres) lost to degradation on average inside each of its projected areas each year.

It is not a country’s economic growth or its level of income or rural population density that drives the degradation. Instead, a variety of causes specific to a local area are more likely the drivers of degradation. These may range from agricultural and grazing expansion to infrastructure development.
There is hope, though. If international funding targeted just the protected areas in tropical and flooded grasslands and moist broadleaf forests, this would help 84% of the protected areas in Latin America where we know degradation is an issue.

Perhaps most importantly for conservation, this new study demonstrates that it is possible to use remote sensing to measure changes in land cover inside a large number of protected areas cheaply and objectively. Setting a global target for reducing the rate of land degradation inside protected areas might be a useful metric for the post-2015 international development goals.

Protected areas are undoubtedly one of the most important tools for the long-term conservation of nature, but more needs to be done to support their effective operation. Now that it’s possible to measure protected area degradation, let’s use the measurements to manage them better.

Opinions expressed on Cool Green Science and in any corresponding comments are the personal opinions of the original authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of The Nature Conservancy.



Terra-i: Eyes on the Ground

Nov 18th, 2013 | By

Terra_i

By: Adeyemi Ademiluyi

Terra-i is a tool that monitors land use change. The data outputs of the tool are then entered into an interactive website that allows the user to investigate and monitor the land-use change occurring all over Latin America and the Caribbean with the hope of extending to cover all of the tropics. It is free to use and open to everyone at www.terra-i.org. In September 2013 the Terra-i team, in collaboration with Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana (IIAP), and Attaining Sustainable Services from Ecosystems through Trade-off Scenarios (ASSETS) project went into the Peruvian Amazon with the aim of investigating the validity of the 2011-2012 data output. Validation is achieved through comparison of information given by this state of the art, near real time, land use change monitoring system with the landscape on the ground. This is the first time since the development of the tool 5 years ago, and the launch of the web site over a year ago that an Amazon based field validation has been conducted.

Starting at Pucallpa, the capital of the Ucayali region of Peru, the team spent 4 days traveling along the Ucayali river by boat and 7 days by car stopping at several sample points along the way, as well as doing an hour long flight covering 100 nautical miles. The trip left researchers Alejandro Coca and John Tello with mixed feelings. The wonderful mix of landscapes, sunrises and sunsets, beautifully starry sky, silent nights, great food, and welcoming people sat in stark contrast to some of the startling facts.

Left: Sawmilling companies are often located near to the Pucallpa port on the Ucayali River. Right: Accessibility given by road access allows the establishment of large-scale activities such as oil palm plantations.

Left: Sawmilling companies are often located near to the Pucallpa port on the Ucayali River. Right: Accessibility given by road access allows the establishment of large-scale activities such as oil palm plantations.

Once there the team found some startling differences between the land use changes that were occurring along the side of the river, and along the side of the quickly growing road that is beginning to have its own system of tributaries leading from it deeper into the forest. They found that along the river they were finding more subsistence farming plots. They found evidence of slash-and-burn farming methods and very little community owned livestock. Villages tended to be smaller and single farms were no bigger than 6 ha. There were however large-scale logging camps along the Ucayali River. One of the logging companies they spoke to told the researchers that they clear 2 areas of 150 ha each every year.

Left: Burnt remains of wildlife, evidence of the negative impact of land conversion without any kind of management. Right: Slash and burn is one of the most common land conversion practices in this region.

Left: Burnt remains of wildlife, evidence of the negative impact of land conversion without any kind of management. Right: Slash and burn is one of the most common land conversion practices in this region.

Once the team started moving along the roads the size of cleared lands increased from 6 ha to 10 ha and above. There was more evidence of slash-and-burn methods including the burnt remains of wildlife. The largest farm they saw was 500 ha of oil palm with plans to extend another 130 ha this year. The accessibility given by road access meant that the communities were far larger; there was also evidence of large scale livestock grazing. 46300 ha of forest cover disappeared in the Ucayali region between 2011 and 2012. This number corresponds to about 74627 international football pitches.

Terra_i4

Left: The fly over allowed us to have coverage of remote areas with difficult access. Right: Most of the forest landscape of this region seems to be fragmented from the air, with a trend of the presence of oil palm plantations.

The government of Peru as well as NGOs operating in the area are promoting oil palm and cocoa as alternative cash crops to try and push out the illicit crops such as coca. The Peruvian government is also putting a lot of effort into investing in decision support systems that monitor the high pressures on the natural resources from activities such as energy crops production, and mining. There are two official institutions generating annual reports but as of yet they lack the real time feedback that Terra-i provides. The Terra-i team believes that this tool could provide the early warnings that could allow the Peruvian government to take preventative steps rather than only being able to react after the fact.

While what some of the team saw was disturbing to them, overall they also see hope for the future. The information from the Terra-i tool proved to be very accurate, and the trip to the field yielded data to allow them to make additional calibrations and thus improve the accuracy of the tool even further. They believe with continued efforts on the part of the Peruvian government and tools such as Terra-i more steps can be taken to protect this rapidly disappearing forest.

In the clearings, called “chagras”, crops such as manioc,  yams, beans, maize and other temporal crops are grown.

In the clearings, called “chagras”, crops such as manioc, yams, beans, maize and other temporal crops are grown.

The Terra-i team is sending out an invitation to the scientific community, policy makers, and all interested parties to use the tool to watch our forests and be aware of what we are allowing to happen to the lungs of the world.

The team also wishes to thank the International Center of Potato (CIP), World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) and the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (CRP6) for their help, providing valuable inputs to this work.



Curso del modelo hidrológico SWAT en Argentina

Nov 18th, 2013 | By

Curso SWAT en IHLLASe realizó exitosamente el Curso Herramientas para la gestión de cuencas hidrográficas – Aplicación del SWAT, del 21 al 25 de octubre de 2013 en Azul. El curso fue organizado por el Instituto de Hidrología de Llanuras (IHLLA) con la participación como docentes del PhD Gabriel Vázquez Amábile (AACREA-UNLP) y la Ing. Natalia Uribe Rivera (CIAT-DAPA, Colombia).

Ante la demanda de este tipo de formación se está organizando una nueva edición del curso para usuarios de nivel inicial y otro curso para nivel avanzado con el programa SWAT. Las fechas tentativas son Abril y Octubre de 2014, respectivamente, y se contará con la presencia del Ing. Jefferson Valencia (CIAT-DAPA, Colombia) para el nivel básico, y del Ph.D. Raghavan Srinivasan (Texas A&M University) y la Ing. Natalia Uribe Rivera (CIAT-DAPA, Colombia) para el avanzado.
Desde 2003 el Programa Hidrológico Internacional de UNESCO ha declarado al IHLLA como Centro de Referencia en Hidrología de Llanuras para América Latina y el Caribe; esperamos tener para el próximo año un convenio CIAT-IHLLA que permita tener intercambio y transferencia de conocimiento entre los dos centros de investigación. (Página web del Instituto IHLLA: http://www.ihlla.org.ar/)