CIAT-IITA Learning Exchange (March 11 to June 10, 2013)
In March 2013, CIAT seconded Maria Baca (CIAT scientist for DAPA in Managua, Nicaragua) for 3 month to the Climate Change program at IITA (http://www.cgiar.org), based in Bukoto, Kampala. The objective was to exchange knowledge about tools to assess and reduce the impact of climate change and vulnerability on the livelihoods of small coffee producing families.
The specific activities were the following:
- Attendance at the Federation of Coffee seminar in Uganda and at the CIAT research advances seminar on management and improvement of beans.
|Henry Ngabirano-Director (UCDA)||Enid Katungi-Researcher (CIAT)|
On March 21, 2013, the Federation of Coffee in Uganda (http://www.ugandacoffee.org/) gathered private organizations and producers to present an economic impact analysis on the coffee value chain in Uganda.
On March 26, 2013, at the headquarters in Kawanda, Uganda, CIAT brought together researchers from CIAT, IITA, NARO (http://www.naro.go.ug/) and NGOs to present CIAT’s research advances on beans. This includes evaluating the impact of the introduction of improved varieties developed by the Center compared to local varieties in different communities in Uganda.
2. Fair of innovative technological tools for mitigation and adaptation to climate change.
This event was organized by the University of Makerere in Kampala, Uganda on March 28, 2013. The objective was to introduce different organizations and private businesses working in the area of innovative tools to reduce the rapid consumption of natural resources, primarily massive deforestation for timber and carbon production around Lake Victoria.
Ibrahim Wanyama- Exhibitor (IITA)
CIAT and IITA shared research on climate change impact on coffee in East Africa, primarily in Uganda. In the research results, CIAT presented climate models to predict the suitability of Arabica coffee in Uganda and other East African countries. IITA presented the results of research on systems of coffee in monoculture and in association with banana, soil monitoring soil and fertility, yields, quality, profitability of crops (coffee and banana) and recommendations for farmers to improve yields and develop climate change adaptation strategies.
3. Field visits to coffee producers in Kasese and Mbale in Uganda.
Smallholder coffee producers with areas less than 3 hectares diversify their farms with corn, beans, yucca, vegetables, fruit and livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry).
|Farm with coffee and other crops in Uganda||Raising animals in Uganda|
4. Comparison of coffee production systems in Nicaragua and Uganda.
Both countries are producers of high quality Arabica coffee. However, their production systems differ in the management of those systems (shade, pruning, varieties, density, fertilization, technology). The economic, social and cultural environment in which families live also depends on institutional support, politics, the level of development of each country and market opportunities that arise for small producers.
Summary about comparison between coffee systems in Nicaragua and Uganda
Nicaragua in Central America is the second poorest country in Latin America. The Human Development Index is 0.59 and 70% of the population in rural areas depend mainly on agriculture and livestock. The cultivation of coffee in Nicaragua brings together about 40,000 producers and their families. It generates jobs in the region for other families and is the engine of the local economy. In addition, coffee producing families depend more than 60% on coffee as their main livelihood. When the climate impacts yields and coffee quality, populations move to other regions or countries in search of income to sustain their families during months of scarcity. Migration is seasonal and depends on the local economy. However, the phenomenon of migration creates dissociated families, which becomes a social problem in rural communities.
Uganda is located in East Africa and is a country that reaches a Human Development Index of 0.45. However, it is one of the leading countries in coffee exportation with about 500,000 small coffee producers. According to statistics, 40% of the coffee exported from Uganda is Arabica coffee which contributes to the creation of jobs on a regional and local level. In some regions in eastern Uganda, small producers depend on approximately 57% on coffee as their main livelihood and in other regions to the north of the country, coffee and bananas contribute equally toward household income. Moreover, some studies by IITA found movement of young people from the countryside to the city in southeast Uganda in Kasese.
Main Arabica coffee producing regions in Nicaragua and Uganda
In Nicaragua, production systems are mostly traditional and semi-conventional. These systems maintain a high diversity of shade and fruit species, despite introduction in recent years of shade species and varieties of low-growing coffee with the ability to produce higher yields and resistance or tolerance to diseases. However, these demand more management and fertilization, which has contributed to specialized use of shade plants of the Ingas sp. species and has reduced the biodiversity of other timber or fruit species.
In Uganda, there are two types of production systems, including monoculture shaded by trees or without shade, with some fruit and in association with bananas or plantains. In some regions, the association of coffee and bananas is more important for producers as bananas contribute an equal amount to household income as coffee. In Uganda, the coffee varieties are high-growing. The most planted varieties are local, such as the Typica variety, and management allows the plants to grow taller.
|Small coffee producer in Nicaragua||Small coffee producer in Uganda|
Climate models predict that coffee in Nicaragua in areas of production less than 1000 meters above sea level will lose aptitude and will be the most affected by climate change and the climate models predict that coffee in Uganda in areas of coffee production less than 1500 meters above sea level will lose aptitude and will be the most affected by climate change.
Altitude of Arabica coffee grown in Nicaragua and Uganda regions
You will dowland a short Presentation IITA-CIAT-2013